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Technique optique de visualisation de l'embolie chez les plantes © Sylvain delzon / Inra

Nouvelle technique optique de visualisation de l'embolie chez les plantes

En scannant une feuille à intervalles réguliers au cours de la déshydratation d'une plante, il est maintenant possible d'y visualiser la propagation de l'embolie dans les nervures. Cette méthode est basée sur la différence de transmission de lumière lorsqu'un vaisseau du xylème, rempli d'eau dans son état fonctionnel, se remplit d'air par le processus dit d'embolie au cours de la déshydratation.

Publié le 12/10/2017

En soustrayant les scans les uns aux autres à l'aide d'un logiciel de traitement d'images, il est possible de mettre en évidence tous les événements d'embolie se produisant dans les nervures d'une feuille (de Laurier dans cet exemple) lorsqu'une plante est soumise à un stress hydrique, et donc de déterminer à quels potentiels hydriques ont lieu d'importants dysfonctionnements hydrauliques qui, in fine, peuvent conduire à la mort de la plante.

La technique optique de visualisation de l'embolie permet maintenant de caractériser la résistance à l'embolie des feuilles, et ce de façon non invasive, en temps réel. Couplée à des mesures de fermeture stomatique et à la technique classique de centrifugation (cavitron - technique développée à l'Inra Nouvelle-Aquitaine - Bordeaux) qui mesure la résistance à l'embolie des branches, cette méthode ouvre de nouvelles perspectives d'étude des fonctionnement et dysfonctionnement hydrauliques généraux des plantes soumises à des conditions de sécheresse. 

La technique optique présentée ici a été développée par Timothy Brodribb et ses collègues à l’Université de Tasmanie (Brodribb et al. 2016 dans la revue New Phytologist). Ses évolutions (miniaturisation notamment, et applications logicielles) ont été présentées à la communauté scientifique internationale lors du dernier congrès Xylem International Meeting qui s'est tenu à Bordeaux en septembre 2017. Elle fonctionne désormais en France sur la plateforme Caviplace GENOBOIS à l’UMR Biogeco de l'Inra Nouvelle-Aquitaine - Bordeaux.

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Écologie des forêts, prairies et milieux aquatiques